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Analysing and Constructing Terms |

- Documentation
- Reference manual
- Built-in Predicates
- Notation of Predicate Descriptions
- Character representation
- Loading Prolog source files
- Editor Interface
- Verify Type of a Term
- Comparison and Unification of Terms
- Control Predicates
- Meta-Call Predicates
- Delimited continuations
- Exception handling
- Printing messages
- Handling signals
- DCG Grammar rules
- Database
- Declaring predicate properties
- Examining the program
- Input and output
- Status of streams
- Primitive character I/O
- Term reading and writing
- Analysing and Constructing Terms
- Analysing and Constructing Atoms
- Localization (locale) support
- Character properties
- Operators
- Character Conversion
- Arithmetic
- Misc arithmetic support predicates
- Built-in list operations
- Finding all Solutions to a Goal
- Forall
- Formatted Write
- Global variables
- Terminal Control
- Operating System Interaction
- File System Interaction
- User Top-level Manipulation
- Creating a Protocol of the User Interaction
- Debugging and Tracing Programs
- Debugging and declaring determinism
- Obtaining Runtime Statistics
- Execution profiling
- Memory Management
- Windows DDE interface
- Miscellaneous

- Built-in Predicates
- Packages

- Reference manual

- [ISO]
**functor**(`?Term, ?Name, ?Arity`) - True when
`Term`is a term with functor`Name`/`Arity`. If`Term`is a variable it is unified with a new term whose arguments are all different variables (such a term is called a skeleton). If`Term`is atomic,`Arity`will be unified with the integer 0, and`Name`will be unified with`Term`. Raises`instantiation_error()`

if`Term`is unbound and`Name`/`Arity`is insufficiently instantiated.SWI-Prolog also supports terms with arity 0, as in

`a()`

(see section 5). Such terms must be processed using functor/4 or compound_name_arity/3. The predicate functor/3 and =../2 raise a`domain_error`

when faced with these terms. Without this precaution a*round trip*of a term with arity 0 over functor/3 would create an atom. **functor**(`?Term, ?Name, ?Arity, ?Type`)- As functor/3,
but designed to work with zero-arity terms (e.g.,
`a()`

, see section 5).`Type`is one of`atom`

,`compound`

,`callable`

or`atomic`

.`Type`*must*be instantiated if`Name`is an atom and`Arity`is 0 (zero). In other cases`Type`may be a variable. This predicate is true if`Term`(either initially or after haveing been created from`Name`and`Type`) and`Type`are related as below- If
`Term`is compound (including zero-arity compounds),`Type`must be`compound`

or`callable`

. If`Type`is unbound is is unified with`compound`

. - If
`Term`is an atom,`Type`must be`atom`

or`callable`

. If`Type`is unbound is is unified with`atom`

. - Else
`Type`is unified with`atomic`

.

This predicate provides a safe

*round trip*for zero-arity compounds and atoms. It can also be used as a variant of functor/3 that only processes compound or callable terms. See also compound/1, callable/1 and compound_name_arity/3. - If
- [ISO]
**arg**(`?Arg, +Term, ?Value`) `Term`should be instantiated to a term,`Arg`to an integer between 1 and the arity of`Term`.`Value`is unified with the`Arg`-th argument of`Term`.`Arg`may also be unbound. In this case`Value`will be unified with the successive arguments of the term. On successful unification,`Arg`is unified with the argument number. Backtracking yields alternative solutions.^{113The instantiation pattern (-, +, ?) is an extension to‘standard' Prolog. Some systems provide genarg/3 that covers this pattern.}The predicate arg/3 fails silently ifor`Arg`= 0and raises the exception`Arg`>*arity*`domain_error(not_less_than_zero,`

if`Arg`).`Arg`< 0- [ISO]
`?Term`**=..**`?List` `List`is a list whose head is the functor of`Term`and the remaining arguments are the arguments of the term. Either side of the predicate may be a variable, but not both. This predicate is called‘Univ'.?- foo(hello, X) =.. List. List = [foo, hello, X] ?- Term =.. [baz, foo(1)]. Term = baz(foo(1))

SWI-Prolog also supports terms with arity 0, as in

`a()`

(see section 5). Such terms must be processed using compound_name_arguments/3. This predicate raises a domain error as shown below. See also functor/3.?- a() =.. L. ERROR: Domain error: `compound_non_zero_arity' expected, found `a()'

**compound_name_arity**(`?Compound, ?Name, ?Arity`)- Version of functor/3
that only works for compound terms and can examine and create compound
terms with zero arguments (e.g,
`name()`

). See also compound_name_arguments/3. See also functor/4. **compound_name_arguments**(`?Compound, ?Name, ?Arguments`)- Rationalized version of =../2 that can compose and decompose compound terms with zero arguments. See also compound_name_arity/3.
**numbervars**(`+Term, +Start, -End`)- Unify the free variables in
`Term`with a term`$VAR(N)`

, where`N`is the number of the variable. Counting starts at`Start`.`End`is unified with the number that should be given to the next variable.^{bugOnly tagged integers are supported (see the Prolog flag max_tagged_integer). This suffices to count all variables that can appear in the largest term that can be represented, but does not support arbitrary large integer values for Start. On overflow, a representation_error(tagged_integer) exception is raised.}The example below illustrates this. Note that the toplevel prints`'$VAR'(0)`

as`A`due to the`numbervars(true)`

option used to print answers.?- Term = f(X,Y,X), numbervars(Term, 0, End), write_canonical(Term), nl. f('$VAR'(0),'$VAR'(1),'$VAR'(0)) Term = f(A, B, A), X = A, Y = B, End = 2.

See also the

`numbervars`

option to write_term/3 and numbervars/4. **numbervars**(`+Term, +Start, -End, +Options`)- As numbervars/3,
providing the following options:
**functor_name**(`+Atom`)- Name of the functor to use instead of
`$VAR`

. **attvar**(`+Action`)- What to do if an attributed variable is encountered. Options are
`skip`

, which causes numbervars/3 to ignore the attributed variable,`bind`

which causes it to treat it as a normal variable and assign the next`'$VAR'`

(N) term to it, or (default)`error`

which raises a`type_error`

exception.^{114This behaviour was decided after a long discussion between David Reitter, Richard O'Keefe, Bart Demoen and Tom Schrijvers.} **singletons**(`+Bool`)- If
`true`

(default`false`

), numbervars/4 does singleton detection. Singleton variables are unified with`'$VAR'('_')`

, causing them to be printed as`_`

by write_term/2 using the numbervars option. This option is exploited by portray_clause/2 and write_canonical/2.^{bugCurrently this option is ignored for cyclic terms.}

**var_number**(`@Term, -VarNumber`)- True if
`Term`is numbered by numbervars/3 and`VarNumber`is the number given to this variable. This predicate avoids the need for unification with`'$VAR'(X)`

and opens the path for replacing this valid Prolog term by an internal representation that has no textual equivalent. - [ISO]
**term_variables**(`+Term, -List`) - Unify
`List`with a list of variables, each sharing with a unique variable of`Term`.^{115This predicate used to be called free_variables/2 . The name term_variables/2 is more widely used. The old predicate is still available from the library library(backcomp).}The variables in`List`are ordered in order of appearance traversing`Term`depth-first and left-to-right. See also term_variables/3 and nonground/2. For example:?- term_variables(a(X, b(Y, X), Z), L). L = [X, Y, Z].

- [semidet]
**nonground**(`+Term, -Var`) - True when
`Var`is a variable in`Term`. Fails if`Term`is*ground*(see ground/1). This predicate is intended for coroutining to trigger a wakeup if`Term`becomes ground, e.g., using when/2. The current implementation always returns the first variable in depth-first left-right search. Ideally it should return a random member of the set of variables (see term_variables/2) to realise logarithmic complexity for the ground trigger. Compatible with ECLiPSe and hProlog. **term_variables**(`+Term, -List, ?Tail`)- Difference list version of term_variables/2.
That is,
`Tail`is the tail of the variable list`List`. **term_singletons**(`+Term, -List`)- Unify
`List`with a list of variables, each sharing with a variable that appears only once in`Term`.^{bugIn the current implementation Term must be acyclic. If not, a representation_error is raised.}Note that, if a variable appears in a shared subterm, it is*not*considered singleton. Thus,`A`is*not*a singleton in the example below. See also the`singleton`

option of numbervars/4.?- S = a(A), term_singletons(t(S,S), L). L = [].

**is_most_general_term**(`@Term`)- True if
`Term`is a callable term where all arguments are non-sharing variables or`Term`is a list whose members are all non-sharing variables. This predicate is used to reason about call subsumption for tabling and is compatible with XSB. See also subsumes_term/2. Examples:1 `is_most_general_term(1)`

false 2 `is_most_general_term(p)`

true 3 `is_most_general_term(p(_))`

true 4 `is_most_general_term(p(_,a))`

false 5 `is_most_general_term(p(X,X))`

false 6 `is_most_general_term([])`

true 7 `is_most_general_term([_|_])`

false 8 `is_most_general_term([_,_])`

true 9 `is_most_general_term([X,X])`

false - [ISO]
**copy_term**(`+In, -Out`) - Create a version of
`In`with renamed (fresh) variables and unify it to`Out`. Attributed variables (see section 8.1) have their attributes copied. The implementation of copy_term/2 can deal with infinite trees (cyclic terms). As pure Prolog cannot distinguish a ground term from another ground term with exactly the same structure, ground sub-terms are*shared*between`In`and`Out`. Sharing ground terms does affect setarg/3. SWI-Prolog provides duplicate_term/2 to create a true copy of a term. **copy_term**(`+VarsIn, +In, -VarsOut, -Out`)- Similar to copy_term/2,
but only rename the variables in
`VarsIn`that appear in`In`.^{116This predicate is based on a similar predicate in s(CASP) by Joaquin Arias.}Variables in`In`that do not appear in`VarsIn`are*shared*between`In`and`Out`. Sub terms that only contain such shared variables are shared as a whole between`In`and`Out`.`VarsIn`is often a list, but can be an arbitrary term. For example:?- copy_term([X], q(X,Y), Vars, Term). Vars = [_A], Term = q(_A, Y).

Note that if

`VarsIn`and`In`do not share any variables,`Out`is equivalent to`In`and`VarsOut`is a copy (as copy_term/2) of`VarsIn`. If`In`does not contain any variables not in`VarsIn`the result is the same as`copy_term(VarsIn-In, VarsOut-Out`

). **copy_term_nat**(`+VarsIn, +In, -VarsOut, -Out`)- As copy_term/4,
using the attributed variable semantics of copy_term_nat/2.
This implies that attributed variables that appear in
`VarsIn`appear as renamed plain variables in`VarsOut`and`Out`. Attributed variables in`In`that do*not*appear in`VarsIn`are shared between`In`and`Out`.

Prolog is not able to *modify* instantiated parts of a term.
Lacking that capability makes the language much safer, but unfortunately
there are problems that suffer severely in terms of time and/or memory
usage. Always try hard to avoid the use of these primitives, but they
can be a good alternative to using dynamic predicates. See also section
4.33, discussing the use of global variables.

**setarg**(`+Arg, +Term, +Value`)- Extra-logical predicate. Assigns the
`Arg`-th argument of the compound term`Term`with the given`Value`. The assignment is undone if backtracking brings the state back into a position before the setarg/3 call. If the designated argument of`Term`is a variable, this variable is unified with`Value`using normal unification, i.e., setarg/3 behaves as arg/3 in this case. Note that this may produce a cyclic term if`Value`contains this variable. See also nb_setarg/3.This predicate may be used for destructive assignment to terms, using them as an extra-logical storage bin. Always try hard to avoid the use of setarg/3 as it is not supported by many Prolog systems and one has to be very careful about unexpected copying as well as unexpected noncopying of terms. A good practice to improve somewhat on this situation is to make sure that terms whose arguments are subject to setarg/3 have one unused and unshared variable in addition to the used arguments. This variable avoids unwanted sharing in, e.g., copy_term/2, and causes the term to be considered as non-ground. An alternative is to use put_attr/3 to attach information to attributed variables (see section 8.1).

**nb_setarg**(`+Arg, +Term, +Value`)- Assigns the
`Arg`-th argument of the compound term`Term`with the given`Value`as setarg/3, but on backtracking the assignment is*not*reversed. If`Value`is not atomic, it is duplicated using duplicate_term/2. This predicate uses the same technique as nb_setval/2. We therefore refer to the description of nb_setval/2 for details on non-backtrackable assignment of terms. This predicate is compatible with GNU-Prolog`setarg(A,T,V,false)`

, removing the type restriction on`Value`. See also nb_linkarg/3. Below is an example for counting the number of solutions of a goal. Note that this implementation is thread-safe, reentrant and capable of handling exceptions. Realising these features with a traditional implementation based on assert/retract or flag/3 is much more complicated.:- meta_predicate succeeds_n_times(0, -). succeeds_n_times(Goal, Times) :- Counter = counter(0), ( Goal, arg(1, Counter, N0), N is N0 + 1, nb_setarg(1, Counter, N), fail ; arg(1, Counter, Times) ).

**nb_linkarg**(`+Arg, +Term, +Value`)- As nb_setarg/3,
but like nb_linkval/2
it does
*not*duplicate`Value`. Use with extreme care and consult the documentation of nb_linkval/2 before use. **duplicate_term**(`+In, -Out`)- Version of copy_term/2 that also copies ground terms and therefore ensures that destructive modification using setarg/3 does not affect the copy. See also nb_setval/2, nb_linkval/2, nb_setarg/3 and nb_linkarg/3.
- [semidet]
**same_term**(`@T1, @T2`) - True if
`T1`and`T2`are equivalent and will remain equivalent, even if setarg/3 is used on either of them. This means`T1`and`T2`are the same variable, equivalent atomic data or a compound term allocated at the same address.

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