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|Constraint Logic Programming|
CLP(X) stands for constraint logic programming over the domain X. Plain Prolog can be regarded as CLP(H), where H stands for Herbrand terms. Over this domain, =/2 and dif/2 are the most important constraints that express, respectively, equality and disequality of terms. Plain Prolog can thus be regarded as a special case of CLP.
There are dedicated constraint solvers for several important domains:
In addition, CHR (chapter 9) provides a general purpose constraint handling language to reason over user-defined constraints.
Constraints blend in naturally into Prolog programs, and behave exactly like plain Prolog predicates in those cases that can also be expressed without constraints. However, there are two key differences between constraints and plain Prolog predicates:
Due to these two key advantages over plain Prolog, CLP has become an extremely important declarative programming paradigm in practice.
Among its most important and typical instances is CLP(FD), constraint logic programming over integers. For example, using constraints, you can state in the most general way that a variable X is an integer greater than 0. If, later, X is bound to a concrete integer, the constraint solver automatically ensures this. If you in addition constrain X to integers less than 3, the constraint solver combines the existing knowledge to infer that X is either 1 or 2 (see below). To obtain concrete values for X, you can ask the solver to label X and produce 1 and 2 on backtracking. See section A.9.
?- use_module(library(clpfd)). ... true. ?- X #> 0, X #< 3. X in 1..2. ?- X #> 0, X #< 3, indomain(X). X = 1 ; X = 2.
Contrast this with plain Prolog, which has no efficient means to deal
with (integer) X > 0 and X < 3. At best it
could translate X > 0 to
between(1, infinite, X)
and a similar primitive for X < 3. If the two are combined
it has no choice but to generate and test over this infinite
Using constraints therefore makes your program more declarative in that it frees you from some procedural aspects and limitations of Prolog.
When working with constraints, keep in mind the following:
All of the mentioned constraint solvers are implemented using the attributed variables interface described in section 8.1. These are lower-level predicates that are mainly intended for library authors, not for typical Prolog programmers.