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Pack logicmoo_cg -- test/cgparser/README

YACC Grammar for the linear form of a Conceptual Graph

I have tried to put together, using code I developed for my honours project, a sample parser for the linear form of a Conceptual Graph. Hopefully this will give an idea of how such a parser may be constructed and provide some insight into the issues involved. I have put the code together rather quickly (cutting, pasting and adding to the original code I had - especially, I removed a lot of problem specific code that is of little use to others). So, the code is neither elegant nor efficient (far from it) but, I hope it is relatively bug free.

The following files are included:

README - this file

README1 - email message sent to Gerard Ellis discussing an appendix to my thesis (see below).

gram.skel.y - skeleton grammar for linear form.

cog.y - implementation of grammar for linear form. Note: not all of the grammar from gram.skel.y has been implemented. Also, the code may make it harder to read than gram.skel.y

cog.h - include file for sample application.

parse.c - C code for sample application (lexical analyser, symbol table, etc.).

Makefile - Makefile for sample application

Test - Directory containing very simple (and very meaningless) tests Interesting files are test3 and test4 - from Sowa's book.
grammar.app.mm - appendix from my thesis contrasting 3 grammars for Conceptual Graphs:
  1. CoGNO - my honours project ("CoGNO - A Graphical User Interface to Conceptual Graphs", Nov 1990)
  2. CONGRES Rao, A. S. and Foo, N. Y., "CONGRES - Conceptual Graph Reasoning System", in Proc. 3rd IEEE Conference on AI Applications, Orlando, Florida. (I actually looked at the code to work out the grammar
  • sorry for any errors made.)
  1. KRE Joyce, R., "Knowledge Representation Environment for Shared World Knowledge" Technical Report 88/3, Department of Computer Science, James Cook` University of North Queensland, Australia, 1988. Print using tbl grammar.app.mm | eqn | troff -mm | <printer>

Notes on the sample application

  • Compile by typing: make
  • Run by typing: cogno <files...> or cogno (expects input from stdin)
  • Data structure used: edge list i.e there is a linked list of nodes. Each node in this list has a linked list of "edges" which are pointers to nodes (signifying that there is an edge from the node "towards" each node on its edge list)
  • All commas must be inserted. I have not taken care of the condition where all commas preceding a period may be omitted. This could probably be handled by the lexical analyser.
  • Remember that every relation must have one (and only one) arc exiting from it. In some cases it is not possible to immediately determine the orientation of arcs connecting relations listed after a dash "-" . I have delayed the choice by pushing relation/concept node pairs onto a stack - when the end of the graph is reached I resolve any directions by looking at the node pairs: if the relation does not have an arc exiting it then I make a connection from the relation to the concept otherwise I make a connection from the concept to the relation. This is ok in most cases but, Sowa mentions that numbering arcs can also be used to resolve this problem - I have neglected arc numbers but they should be checked. One other check that should be performed here is to ensure that each relation has one arc exiting from it. This shouldn't be too hard to implement. At present the graph [A]->(B) will be accepted!
  • In the sample application nested subgraphs are treated as separate entities - I do not make any attempt to associate them to the node in which they are nested. Also, the memory they use is deallocated after they have been parsed.
  • The two shift reduce errors produced on running the grammar through yacc are due to the <sep> rule as a result of the newline character (\n) being significant - you can probably get rid of them using yacc's %left but they don't affect the result anyway.
  • I don't treat the word PROPOSITION in any special way (I did at one time - but it's just a concept type label and therefore I don't consider it to have any special meaning even though in most cases it does). Any concept label can be used in a concept node with nested subgraphs.
  • Not much checking is done - some others that may be performed are commented into the code. (e.g., in type definitions we should check that the parameter supplied actually exists in the graph).
  • The sample application exits immediately if a syntax error is detected you may wish to modify this behaviour.
  • Unfortunately I have put this together in haste. Therefore I am sorry for any errors, lack of information and clarity, etc., that exists. I hope that the grammar may be of use.

    Maurice Pagnucco --

    Basser Department of Computer Science Madsen Building, F09 University of Sydney, NSW 2006 AUSTRALIA

    email: morri@cs.su.oz.au

    (temporary email address - Nov 1990 - Feb 15, 1991 morri@csis.dit.csiro.au)